Over the past six years, I’ve advised about 300 interns.
Aside from the work they complete at the internship location, students reflect on their experiences in a daily journal and check-in with me once a week to provide an update.
We often discuss workplace concerns.
“My boss ignores me every day,” a student wrote in an email. “When he does talk to me, he’s always looking at his phone instead of at my face. He’s always on his phone.”
She went on to explain that he ignores other interns, too.
“When he’s not around, he texts us instead of calling,” she added. “I think he just doesn’t know what to do with us. I think he doesn’t trust us.”
Her supervisor was phubbing, a portmanteau of the words “phone” and “snubbing.”
According to Meredith David, marketing professor at Baylor University, phubbing refers to the act of snubbing someone you’re spending time with by looking at or being distracted by your cellphone.
Boss phubbing, or Bphubbing, a term coined by David and her colleagues, occurs when a supervisor interrupts face-to-face time with an employee by using or being distracted by a smartphone.
“I started studying the impact of phubbing on individuals and relationships in both personal and workplace settings,” David said. “My research reveals how a behavior as simple as using a cellphone in the presence of others can ultimately undermine individuals’ personal and workplace relationships.”
In the October issue of Computers in Human Behavior, David and her colleagues shared the impact of BPhubbing on employees.
“BPhubbing has a negative impact on employees’ trust in their supervisor, but the negative effects of BPhubbing don’t end there,” David said. “Our results show that, by harming trust in their supervisor, BPhubbing also negatively affects employee engagement.”
Specifically, BPhubbing reduces employee trust in supervisors, which in turn has a negative impact on employee engagement in two ways.
“First, employees who experience BPhubbing, and have lower levels of trust for their supervisor, are less likely to feel like their work is valuable or beneficial to their own professional growth,” David explained.
In turn, employees are less engaged or committed to their work.
“Second, employees who work under the supervision of an untrusted, phubbing supervisor tend to have lower confidence in their own ability to carry out their job,” David said.
Again, this negatively impacts engagement.
Of course, as David notes, most of us have been guilty at some point of looking at our phones rather than paying attention to someone.
“Put away your cellphone in favor of meaningful, distraction-free interactions with your supervisor and coworkers,” he said. “The benefits far outweigh that text message, unread email, or social media post.”
Some two weeks after announcing the discovery of more than 3,000 ads addressing social and political issues central to the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Facebook has released those ads to groups investigating election-tampering claims.
The ads ran on the Facebook’s platform between 2015 and 2017. According to Facebook attorney Colin Stretch, the ads appear to have originated from accounts associated with a Russian entity known as the Internet Research Agency.
On Monday, The Washington Post reported that Russia’s Internet Research Agency created the ads to capitalize on racial and religious tensions leading up to the U.S. election. The agency creates and disseminates fake news that targets domestic and foreign groups and individuals.
In a 2015 New York Times Magazine expose, Adrian Chen wrote, “The [Internet Research Agency] had become known for employing hundreds of Russians to post pro-Kremlin propaganda online under fake identities ... in order to create the illusion of a massive army of supporters; it has often been called a ‘troll farm.’ The more I investigated this group, the more links I discovered between it and the hoaxes.”
Facebook decided it was time to provide information related to those ads, and the ad content, to the special counsel investigating allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 election.
However, pundits and concerned citizens implored Facebook to share the ad content more broadly. So, Stretch noted that Facebook would share the ads with congressional investigators.
“We believe it is vitally important that government authorities have the information they need to deliver to the public a full assessment of what happened,” Stretch said in an announcement posted to the Facebook newsroom.
This prompted another “Hard Questions” response from Facebook. If you’re a regular reader of this column, you might remember reading my review of Facebook’s “Hard Questions” about the online fight against terrorism, or how the platform handles a deceased user’s profile content.
Elliot Schrage, vice president of policy and communications, addressed “Hard Questions” on the fake news ad content probe, including why Facebook shared the ad content with the special counsel and Congress and not with the general public, and if they expect to find more ads from Russian or other foreign actors using fake accounts.
“When we’re looking for this type of abuse, we cast a wide net in trying to identify any activity that looks suspicious,” Schrage wrote in his “Hard Questions” post. “Bad actors are always working to use more sophisticated methods to ... cover their tracks.”
Of Facebook’s 1.28 billion daily active users, only 14 responded to Schrage’s post with comments and questions of their own.
Read Schrage’s post and user responses at newsroom.fb.com. Search for “Hard Questions.” You can send question suggestions to Facebook at firstname.lastname@example.org.
I’ve been using Twitter for the better part of 8 years.
In all honestly, it’s been a love-hate relationship. I can’t fix the things I hate about Twitter, so I use workarounds to avoid mean tweets and unpleasant interactions.
The things I love about Twitter, however, I tend to exploit.
GIFs are excellent example. I’m not ashamed to admit, I’m a notorious animated GIF user on Twitter. In fact, most if not all of my tweets in recent months have included an image, video, or animated GIF.
My animated GIF philosophy is quite simple: if a picture is worth a thousand words, then why not use multilayered images? After all, we’re limited to 140 characters on Twitter, and a lot can be misinterpreted without a little extra context.
Not long ago, I posted a tweet without an animated GIF, and a friend replied, “I question whether or not this is the real @adamearn (my Twitter handle). Where’s the meme?” He was referring, of course, to my love of animated GIFs.
According to urbandictionary.com, GIF is the acronym for “graphics interchange format.” Back in the early days of the internet, we used GIF images because they were small, compressed files.
As a webmaster in the mid-90s, I was trying to create beautiful websites that would load on home computers connected to 56k modems (for you youngins, that’s really, really slow).
We used GIFs to make upload and download much faster.
The proper pronunciation of GIF uses a soft “g” sound: like JIF.
Urbandictionary.com notes that, at some point, one of the GIF format creators, Bob Berry or Steve Wilhite said, “Choosy programmers choose GIF.” This was a play on the peanut butter commercials with the slogan, “Choosy moms choose Jif,” referring, of course, to the Jiffy peanut butter brand.
Yet, there’s a weird pronunciation battle that lingers, with soft “g” users on one side and hard “g” users on the other. It’s the web designers equivalent of a West Coast-East Coast rap battle.
Yep, we’re really that cool.
But animated GIFs are a step up from small, static images. These GIFs are actually multilayered images that create the video-like, animated effects we see in memes on Twitter and other platforms.
Like static GIFs, animated GIFs are small files and easy to load.
It’s hard not to want to use them. Ask most Twitter users and they’ll have their favorites.
One of my favorites is “white guy blinking,” an animated GIF of video editor Drew Scanlon blinking in disbelief in reaction to a comment from a video game player.
Open your compose window in Twitter and look for the square GIF icon. From there, you can search for your favorites.
Twitter helps by providing some suggested categories such as “applause” and “YOLO.”
At age 14, Tyler McVicker of Vienna, created Valve News Network (VNN), a YouTube channel devoted to news and information about video games.
More than six years later, McVicker has amassed over 240-thousand subscribers. Subscribers are the lifeblood of video creators who use YouTube channels to earn income.
One of McVicker’s most recent videos, a story related to the first-person shooter game Half Life, received more than 680-thousand views.
McVicker, now a student at Youngstown State University majoring in computer science and journalism, talked with me about VNN and his success on YouTube:
Q: What’s VNN and how did you get started?
A: VNN is a hub where fans can find game information quickly and easily.
When I was 10, I played a video game called Portal. I fell in love. It was completely different from anything I'd ever seen, and I wanted to know as much about it as possible.
When I wasn’t replaying the game, I was trying out levels other players made, or I was reading about Valve Software, the company that created Portal.
I wanted to know everything about (Valve). I figured out the majority of places hardcore fans would discuss news about the game and Valve, and I wanted this share this news with mainstream fans.
So, I started VNN in July of 2011.
Q: VNN has an impressive number of subscribers. What strategies did you use to build your fan base?
A: My subscribers are a surprise to me as well. I don't think I have a real strategy. My entire purpose is to create things that I’d want to watch if I were in the audience.
I love Valve games. I love game development and things cut from games. I love the communities that surround these games, and that result in incredible art and mods (i.e., game modifications). So I make videos that hit on these passions. I feel that the emotion behind the words comes through when I make these videos.
I tend to be as personable as possible. I’m very upfront about who I am, what I do, and what I feel. This does mean people can easily attack me when things aren’t up to a certain standard. But it also allows anyone to be part of the content, to be part of a real community.
Q: What’s your strategy for marketing new VNN content?
A: I don’t promote much. I don’t find I need too. I try to be a real person as much as possible, meaning whenever someone sees my logo, they know exactly what they’re getting when they click it.
Everything has to do with adding as personal of a touch as possible, to allow people to feel welcomed, respected and appreciated.
Q: Do you follow other successful YouTube users? If so, what have you learned from them?
A: Before I started VNN, I watched YouTube everyday. And I still do.
My main inspirations are Ross Scott, LGR (Lazy Game Reviews), Jim Sterling, Jon Jafari, Ben “Yahtzee” Croshaw. More recently, I’ve been watching Joseph Anderson.
I can’t nail down what I've learned from these creators. It’s safe to say that my own format is an amalgam of them all.
Q: My kids are young, but they claim they’re going to “major in YouTube” when they get to college. Do you have any advice for people who want to start a YouTube channel?
A: Success on YouTube is completely based on luck more then anything else. Also, I feel like the platform itself is slowly dying.
Earlier this year, many major corporations that bought ad space before and during videos pulled out. YouTube tried to remedy the situation with an automated process for flagging any video considered “inappropriate.”
The problem is, the bot doesn’t work as intended, and is based on machine learning. It was created too quickly, and the bot wasn’t given enough time or training data. So they instead let the bot lose to make mistakes in public. These mistakes resulted in any video being uploaded having the possibility of being flagged, resulting in little to no earnings on that work.
The worst part is, YouTube can’t tell the creators what they did wrong, due to the bot’s operations.
Great example: I put out a video last week, getting close to 700,000 views, and it was flagged about 20 hours into its life. I wasn’t alerted via email or any other form of communication, and I wasn’t told what I’d done wrong. So that day I put out a video announcing the flag, and even though the community support was amazing, in about an hour, the announcement video was flagged.
I made another video, as the situation seemed to get a little crazy, and immediately, the third video was flagged. No alerts, no reasons given, and no official way to contact with people who actually work at YouTube. The content creators are forced to request a manual review, and sit there as their videos receive attention and views that will go unpaid. These manual reviews can take upwards of a week.
This is one of many blunders that YouTube and Google have pulled over the years affecting creators, and there’s no easy way to connect with YouTube support.
It paints a picture of YouTube caring more for the companies than the creators, even though it’s the creators who made the site what it is today. My advice for people who want to create their own YouTube channels and content is to wait for YouTube to fix their site, or for a YouTube competitor to rise up.
Q: What's next for you and VNN?
A: My dream is to work at Valve. That’s no secret, and why I get so much criticism.
However, in the short term, my goals are simple: more growth, more videos and more topics.
I have other unused channels with decent subscriber numbers, and I intend to use those soon. Other than that, I plan on finishing degrees in computer science and journalism, and continue making a name for myself in the games journalism industry.
To watch McVicker’s videos, search for “Valve News Network” on YouTube or Google.
In this social media age, it’s hard to believe you can pick up and move to a new city and not know a single person. No family. No friends. No friends of friends.
But that’s exactly what happened to my friend, Sam (I changed his name; you’ll understand why in a second).
After some tension with a girlfriend, a crappy job, and the feeling his 30s were passing him by, Sam relocated from Charlotte to Dallas in hopes of finding a better life.
“This isn’t to say Charlotte is a bad place. I loved it there,” Sam explained in a Facebook Messenger exchange (he gave me permission to include our conversation here so long as I changed his name and didn’t mention his ex-girlfriend by name).
“(I) needed to escape the job and some people. (I) needed a change of pace if I wanted to be happy.”
But what he found was loneliness, which was hard for me to understand considering his elaborate connections on social media.
He was figuratively connected to everyone. He has “500+” connections on LinkedIn (he said the number tops 4,000 connections), more than 2,000 Facebook “friends,” and a smattering of Twitter followers.
Surely he’d know someone in Dallas.
“I had tons of friends in Charlotte. Now I’m on an island in Dallas,” he explained.
“Side note: yes, I’m connected to some people in Dallas, but through (ex-girlfriend). So it would be really weird, and possibly bad, if I reached out to one or more of them.”
“So what does ‘Mr. Social Media’ have for a lonely guy in a big city,” Sam asked. “And no. Don’t tell me to use Tinder. That’s one of the reasons I ended up in Dallas.”
Another good point.
He wasn’t ready to date (his words; not mine), so dating apps were off the table.
Instead, I suggested using apps that connected him with people offline, but for reasons other than finding love and hooking up.
We turned to Meetup (available for Android and iOS devices). This app brings people together with similar interests online to explore, teach and learn things offline.
Meetup has more than 32 million members, 288,000 Meetup groups in 182 countries, nearly 615,000 monthly “meetings,” and 4 million monthly RSVPs for events.
“People run marathons, thanks to running Meetups. They write, thanks to writing Meetups. They change their careers, thanks to career Meetups,” the app description reads.
“(Meetup users) talk, help, mentor and support each other – all in pursuit of moving their lives forward.” This is exactly what Sam needed.
And so far, so good.
Sam is a runner and outdoor enthusiast. Once he signed on to Meetup, he joined a local running group.
“Next week I’m taking a kayaking class,” he said. “Wish me luck.”
As a penny-pinching college student in the early-’90s, I was always on the hunt for deals. This included happy hour free food and cheap beer.
Fast-forward two decades. With a little more disposable income and a refined palate, I prefer the taste of an occasional craft beer paired with an artisan burger.
Most of the beer choices I make at the bar come by way of suggestions from bartenders and the “beer connoisseur” on the next stool.
But when I’m standing in the beer cooler, and there’s no one else around, it’s hard to know which beer to buy. IPA. Porter. Lager. Stout. There are seemingly unlimited choices.
It’s easy for a beer muggle to get lost.
Thankfully, there’s a beer app (or two) for that. Here are two of my favorites:
Untappd (Android, iOS, Windows; free). It never fails. I try a new tasty brew and promptly forget the name and where I drank it. With Untappd, you can check in at the local pub and record what you’ve tried. Rate beer to let others know what you think.
After you log in and connect with friends via Facebook and other social platforms, you can search favorite beers by venues or breweries.
When I searched the Youngstown area, local favorites like Rust Belt Brewing and Paladin Brewing popped up. From there, you can view brewery beer lists and venue menus. Suzie’s Dogs and Drafts lists 33 beers on the draft menu.
Untappd gamifies the beer sampling experience with badges. Drink a new beer, get a new badge. Try different beer styles and unlock achievements.
One of my favorite features is “Get a Ride.” If you’ve had one too many, the app provides a direct link to Uber.
Barly (Android, iOS; free). Log in and meet Charles Barly, your beer aficionado. Barly walks you through the beer selection process by identifying your tastes. You can refine your tastes using the palate feature. I chose “crisp and clean” and “fruit and spicy” from the palate list, but you can delve a little deeper by selecting region and style (e.g., pale ale, lager, etc.).
Based on your preferences, Barly uses red stars to suggest beer selections at various locations depending on your palate. For example, at Magic Tree Pub in Boardman, Barly suggested I try Mother Pucker from Birdfish Brewing (watermelon flavor) or Mango Hops, a kombucha-style tea beer from Wild Ohio Brewing (you guessed it, mango flavor).
If you like a beer not listed in Barly’s selections, submit a new beer with the name, brewery and style. You can also list the ABV (alcohol by volume), IBU (international bitter unit), calories and a brief description.
Remember that you need to be of legal drinking age to use these apps.
And regardless of what beer apps you use, always drink responsibly.
I’m updating my last will and testament with directions on how I want my memories preserved on social media.
You should, too.
Let me explain.
In June, Facebook launched a new blog series titled “Hard Questions.”
Essentially, the new series is a forum for open discussions about complex issues we’re facing on social media.
“We hope this will be a place not only to explain some of our choices but also explore hard questions,” said Elliot Schrage, Vice President for Public Policy and Communications at Facebook.
The first few entries focused on questions such as how to keep terrorists from spreading propaganda online, and how social media companies should monitor and remove controversial posts from their platforms.
I wrote about that first “Hard Questions” entry in The Vindicator on June 28, 2017 (“Platforms team up to fight terrorism”).
But last week’s entry was personal for me. It’s something I’ve struggled with since one of my students, Jon, died in a car accident over a decade ago: how to celebrate someone’s life on social media after they’ve died.
The “Hard Question” was “After a person dies, what should happen to their online identity?”
But I think it’s a much deeper, more complex question.
So does Facebook, apparently.
When I visit Jon’s page, I see occasional posts–messages sent directly to him as if he’s still reading them. It’s a page built on Facebook’s old interface, so some of the features no longer work. His profile image is gone.
But the posts are still there. In fact, I posted in 2015:
“This is my 10 year anniversary at YSU and I still reference stories about you and our conversations. Hope you’re living it up on the other side.”
Knowing Jon, he probably is.
Monika Bickert, Director of Global Policy Management at Facebook attempted to answer the hard question by providing a glimpse into the network’s role in preserving our online memories.
Facebook found the perfect person to write this entry. It was raw and passionate, and to be completely honest–I got a little emotional:
“In the days after my husband died, I kept sending him text messages... I needed to feel like I was still connected to him... pretending he was on the other side of the messages I was sending and would soon write back.”
I encourage you to read her blog. Go to newsroom.fb.com and search “Hard Questions.”
It’s moving. But more importantly, it provides a glimpse into the care Facebook takes with our memories after we’re gone.
In short, the answer is this: like the rest of us, Facebook’s still trying to figure it out.
If you’re concerned about what memories will be preserved after you’re gone, talk to others about how you want to be remembered–on social media, of course.
Now, time to dust off that will.
For the better part of a decade, I’ve been on a space exploration kick.
I know I’ll never venture into space, so I’ve been making a not-so-subtle push for one of my kids to take the astronaut route.
This year, I suggested we watch Monday’s solar eclipse together as a family, and to make it a “party.” That one word – party – was all they needed to hear to get on board.
Of course, I have to make it educational, too.
A quick search revealed several good smartphone apps for watching and learning about the eclipse.
Here are the good ones:
Eclipse Megamovie Project (free). A team from Google and the Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley partnered on this crowdsourcing solar eclipse video project.
Using your smartphone (or DSLR camera), you can help astronomers track and photograph the eclipse as it travels across the U.S.
When you photograph the eclipse, the images, time, and location data will be sent to the team at Berkeley to help them create a massive database of observations.
The archive will give scientists an opportunity to explore the sun for years to come and the “movie” portion will stitch together photographs to show the eclipse progression from coast to coast.
When you open the app, a map tracks the path of “totality” to help you understand when and where to best see the eclipse. Totality simply means it’s a total solar eclipse. The moon completely obscures the sun.
You can find out more about the Eclipse Megamovie Project at https://eclipsemega.movie (hint: no “www”).
Solar Eclipse by Redshift (free or $1.99). This app features brilliant images and interactive simulations for exploring the eclipse.
You’ll find information about the best spots for viewing, facts about the Sun, information on eclipses from the last few decades (i.e. images, videos), and tips for safe observations.
You’ll also find weather data, as a cloudy day could make for poor viewing.
One minor complaint – the app is large. When I downloaded it from the Google Play, it weighed in at 382 MB. Also, this app is free for Android devices, but $1.99 for iOS devices (but worth every penny).
Solar Eclipse Timer ($1.99). According to Foxwood Astronomy, this app “is like having your own personal astronomer” on eclipse day. I paid for the app and was quickly surprised by its features and ease-of-use.
It’s perfect for first-time eclipse observers and veteran astronomers. The GPS locates your position and calculates eclipse contact times. If you’re watching in a rural location, good news: no internet connection is required for this app.
The voice countdown guides you through the eclipse phases, including partial eclipse observations (e.g., temperature drop, animal behavior), and when it’s safe to remove your solar glasses.
All apps are available for Android and iOS devices.
Last month, I started a sabbatical from my regular work at YSU.
I’m lucky. Most U.S. employees won’t take a sabbatical (e.g., pay cut, etc.), so it’s a blessing to get the opportunity.
To be completely honest, I’m a little miserable. Sure, I like working from home, having time to do research I would otherwise never get to do. But now that I’m home, my work-life balance feels a little imbalanced.
I feel like a telecommuter. I’ve had quite a few online meetings, and they’re just not as satisfying or productive as in-person, face-to-face meetings.
So like a good social scientist, I turned to research on telecommuting to see how others deal with working online from home.
Telecommuting is defined as working for a company from another location. Also referred to as “telework” or “remote work,” telecommuters don’t typically commute to a traditional workplace on a daily basis.
Turns out, we’re working more at home. According to a recent report by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 22 percent of people employed in the U.S. did some or all of their work at home.
The number of workers doing some or all of their work at home grew from 19 percent in 2003 to 22 percent in 2016. When you break it down, those numbers equate to an additional half-hour of work from home, or 3.1 hours per day (up from 2.6 hours in 2003).
Results from the Bureau’s American Time Use Survey (ATUS) showed that those who worked from home did more household activities and engaged in more leisure and sports activities.
You can include me in that “household activities” group, thanks in part to an ever-expanding “honey do” list.
To avoid those household chores, some of us work on the road, logging in from various locations around the world. These workers are referred to as “nomad” telecommuters, and you might see them working from public spaces where wireless access is readily available.
One can assume that the internet and better bandwidth fueled this growth in remote work (remember the good ol’ days with 56k modems). After all, if we’re working from home, this means doing more work online, conducting more virtual meetings and fewer face-to-face.
So, this will be my working norm for the next year: online meetings.
I don’t like them, but they’re necessary to collect the data I need.
Ken Perlman, an engagement leader at Kotter International, provided strategies for getting the most out these virtual meetings.
When travel budgets for meetings were decreased, he brought together 25 volunteers from different parts of his company, from different levels around the globe, speaking different languages.
For successful online work, Perlman’s virtual work sessions had to be clear.
Be simple, interactive, collaborative, and deliberate. When this happened, he found that everyone contributed to the conversation, and confidence grew.
This was supposed to be a day of celebration for the creators of fake news.
Snopes, the world-renowned fact-checking website, was set to close down the site over multiple legal battles.
Thanks to the generosity of mythbuster-loving, fake-news-loathing readers, Snopes got its reprieve.
At least for now.
Those legal battles? Interestingly enough, they have nothing to do with the myths, urban legends and fake news that Snopes relentlessly pursues.
It all really comes down to money and ownership. Snopes didn’t have enough to money fight the battles over ad revenue and ownership and keep the site running.
On July 24, Snopes founder David Mikkelson said the site was in danger of shutting down completely because of problems with “an outside vendor.” The “vendor” controlled the Snopes.com domain and shut down access to all advertising revenue.
Essentially, the vendor, said Mikkelson, was threatening to “hold the Snopes.com website hostage.”
The battle moves to court Friday.
The problem for Snopes’ (beyond shuttering its online doors forever) is reputation.
Snopes never really had funding problems. Since 1994, when Mikkelson launched the site, Snopes was a completely self-sufficient entity, independent from any news organization, political group or foundation.
It is still completely owned by its operators and, until last week, funded through advertising revenues.
According to the Snopes.com “About” page, “neither the site nor its operators has ever received monies from (or been engaged in any business or editorial relationship with) any sponsor, political party, religious group ...” and so on.One of the funnier questions on its FAQs page is:
“Are you funded by George Soros?”
“No ... and we wouldn’t recognize George Soros if we sat next to him on a bus.”
But when your back’s against the wall, to whom do you turn for help?
Your friends. And Mikkelson has thousands of them: long-time, loyal users of the oldest and largest fact-checking site on the internet.
Mikkelson and “Team Snopes” used crowdfunding site GoFundMe to ask those friends for a half-million dollars.
The GoFundMe page included a plea from Team Snopes. “We need our community now more than ever, as it is only through your support that Snopes.com can remain the community and resource we all know and love.”
In less than a week, it generated $680,000 from more than 24,000 donors.
In an update posted July 31, Team Snopes said the money it raised will be used to keep the site running during litigation.
The future of Snopes remains in limbo. But thanks to the generosity of thousands of friends of the fake news busters, Snopes will be with us a little while longer.
Dr. Adam C. Earnheardt is associate professor and chair of the department of communication at Youngstown State University in Youngstown, OH, USA. He researches and writes about social media and technology, sports and fans.